Significant 15th Century Dates

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January

January 13th 1400: Henry IV has the Earls of Kent, Huntingdon, Salisbury and Lord Despenser executed after the so called Epiphany plot, fermented to support the imprisoned Richard II failed.

January 19th 1419: The City of Rouen surrenders to Henry V.

January 26th 1436: Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Beaufort, staunch Lancastrian was born.

January 9th 1463: William Neville, Lord Fauconburg, Earl of Kent, dies.

January 5th 1477: Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, dies.

January 15th 1478: Richard, Duke of York, second son of Edward IV, marries Lady Anne Mowbray in Westminster Abbey.

January 24th 1484: The opening of Richard III’s only Parliament which passed the Act of Titulus Regis, outlining Richard’s claim to the throne.


February

February 14th 1400: Richard II dies in captivity at Pontefract Castle.

February 2nd 1403: Henry IV marries Joanna of Navarre.

February 23rd 1421: Catherine of Valois crowned Queen Consort of Henry V in Westminster Abbey.

February 21st 1437: King James I of Scotland assassinated.

February 23rd 1447: Death (perhaps murder),of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, fourth son of Henry IV, Regent for Henry VI in England.

February 2nd 1461:  Edward, Earl of March, (later Edward IV), defeats an army commanded by Jasper Tudor at Mortimer’s Cross.

February 17th 1461: A Yorkist army led by the Earl of Warwick is defeated by a Lancastrian army led by Margaret of Anjou at St Albans.

February 27th 1461: Edward, Duke of York, Earl of March, enters London, and is later offered the throne as Edward IV.

February 11th 1466: The birth of Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV, later Queen Consort.

February 21st 1475: The birth of Edward, later Earl of Warwick, son of George, Duke of Clarence.

February 7th 1478: George, Duke of Clarence found guilty of treason and condemned to death by Parliament.

February 18th 1478: George, Duke of Clarence, executed in the Tower of London.


March

March 22nd 1406: James, heir to the Scottish throne, captured by English pirates and delivered to Henry IV.

March 23rd 1430: Birth of Margaret of Anjou, later wife and Queen of Henry VI.

March 2nd 1454: Richard, Duke of York becomes Protector of the Realm due to Henry VI’s insanity.

March 24th 1458: Henry VI arranges the Love Day ordering the Yorkists and Lancastrians to process through London to St Paul’s led by Richard, Duke of York and Margaret of Anjou.

March 6th 1461: Edward, Duke of York is offered and accepts the throne of England as Edward IV.

March 28th 1461: Yorkist victory at the Battle of Ferrybridge.

Palm Sunday, March 29th 1461: Decisive Yorkist victory by Edward IV over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton, the bloodiest battle fought on English soil.

March 12th 1469: Edward IV’s army puts down a rising aimed at giving power to the Earl of Warwick and George, Duke of Clarence.

March 20th 1469: Cecily third daughter of Edward IV born.

March 14th 1471: Edward IV lands at Ravenspur returning from exile.

March 17th 1473: James of Scotland, future James IV, born.

March 16th 1485: Anne Neville, Queen Consort of Richard III, dies during an eclipse of the sum at Westminster.


April

April 9th 1413: Henry V crowned King in Westminster Abbey.

April 28th 1442: The future Edward IV born in Rouen France.

April 22nd 1444: Elizabeth, later Duchess of Suffolk, daughter of Richard, Duke of York born.

April 11th 1447: Death of Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester.

April 2nd 1454: Richard, Duke of York, Protector, makes his brother in law Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, Chancellor.

April 25th 1464: A Yorkist army commanded by John Neville, Lord Montagu, defeats a Lancastrian force led by the Duke of Somerset at the Battle of Hedgeley Moor.

April 10th 1471: George, duke of Clarence meets his brothers Edward IV and Richard of Gloucester at Banbury and pledges his loyalty to the Yorkist cause.

Easter Sunday, April 14th 1471: The Yorkist army led by Edward IV beats the Lancastrians led by the Earl of Warwick at the Battle of Barnet leading to the death of Warwick and his brother John, Marquis Montagu.

April 10th 1472: Margaret fourth daughter of Edward IV born.

April 9th 1483: Edward IV died.


May

May 10th 1403: Kathryn de Roet, mother of the Beauforts, third wife of John, Duke of Lancaster died.

May 3rd 1415: Cecily Neville, mother of Edward IV and Richard III, born at Raby Castle, County Durham.

May 21st 1420: Henry V signs the Treaty of Troyes with France.

May 21st 1424: James I of Scotland is crowned at Scone.

May 8th 1429: Joan of Arc raises the siege of Orleans.

May 23rd 1430: Joan of Arc captured by the Burgundians.

May 13th 1431: Joan of Arc burnt at the Stake.

May 27th 1443: Edmund, later Earl of Rutland, son of Richard, Duke of York, born.

May 30th 1445: Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI crowned Queen Consort in Westminster Abbey.

May 3rd 1446: Margaret, later Duchess of Burgundy, daughter of Richard, Duke of York, born.

May 1st 1450: William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, executed on the sands at Southampton.

May 8th 1450: Kentish rebellion under Jack Cade begins.

May 1st 1464: Edward IV marries Elizabeth Woodville secretly.

May 15th 1464: A Yorkist army commanded by John Neville, Lord Montagu, defeats a Lancastrian army led by the Duke of Somerset. The execution of the Duke took place after the battle.

May 26th 1466: Elizabeth Woodville crowned Queen Consort in Westminster Abbey.

May 4th 1471: Edward IV leads an army to victory at the Battle of Tewkesbury culminating in the death of Edward of Lancaster, and the end of the House of Lancaster.

May 6th 1471: Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Lancaster, executed.

May 9th 1471: London denies entry to the Bastard of Fauconburg and the Kentish rebels.

May 27th 1471: Henry VI died, (perhaps murdered), in the Tower of London.

May 31st 1495: Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, dies at Berkhampstead Castle.


June

June 8th 1405: Archbishop Scrope executed by order of Henry IV at York.

June 3rd 1420: Henry V marries Catherine de Valois at Troyes Cathedral, France.

June 11th 1456: Anne Neville, daughter of the Earl of Warwick, later Queen Consort of Richard III, born in Warwick Castle.

June 26th 1461: The three Yorkist Earl’s, March, Warwick and Salisbury land at Sandwich on return from exile in Calais.

June 28th 1461: Edward IV crowned King in Westminster Abbey.

Events also taking place in June: 1464: The sieges of the Northumbrian castles Alnwick, Dunstanburgh and Bamburgh came to an end with their surrender to the Yorkists.

June 15th 1467: Philippe the Good, Duke of Burgundy, dies.

June 11th 1488: James III of Scotland is assassinated.

June 13th 1483: William, Lord Hastings executed in the Tower of London.

June 22nd 1483: The children of Edward IV declared illegitimate.


July

July 21st 1403: Henry (Hotspur) Percy killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury.

July 17th 1431: Henry VI crowned King in Westminster Abbey.

July 10th 1460: A Yorkist army defeats the Lancastrians at the Battle of Northampton.

July 3rd 1468: Margaret of York marries Charles, Duke of Burgundy.

July 26th 1468: An army led by the Earls of Pembroke and Devon for Edward IV, is defeated by the rebellious forces of the Earl of Warwick and the Duke of Clarence.

July 28th 1468: Edward IV taken into captivity by George Neville, Archbishop of York, on behalf of the Earl of Warwick.

July 22nd 1470: The Earl of Warwick meets Margaret of Anjou and pledges his loyalty to the House of Lancaster.

July 29th 1476: The bodies of Richard, Duke of York and his son Edmund of Rutland, are reburied in St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay.

July 6th 1483: Richard III and Anne Neville crowned King and Queen in Westminster Abbey.

July 14th 1484: Richard III founds the Council of the North.


August

August 5th 1415: Richard, Earl of Cambridge, father of Richard duke of York, executed by Henry V for treason.

August 11th 1415: Henry V sails for France prior to the Battle of Agincourt.

August 31st 1422: Henry VI becomes King of England.

August 12th 1417: Henry V promotes the use of English for government business.

August 3rd 1460: James II of Scotland is killed by an exploding cannon.

August 11th 1467: Mary second daughter of Edward IV born.

August 14th 1468: The siege of Harlech Castle, begun in 1464, ends with the Lancastrians surrender to the Yorkists led by Sir William Herbert.

August 14th 1473: The birth of Margaret, daughter of George, duke of Clarence.

August 17th 1473: Richard, later Duke of York, second son of Edward IV, born.

August 29th 1475: Edward IV and Louis XI of France sign the Treaty of Picquigny.

August 14th 1479: Katherine sixth daughter of Edward IV born.

August 25th 1482: Death of Margaret of Anjou.

August 29th 1483: Richard III and queen Anne arrive in York to a tumultuous welcome.

August 22nd 1485: Richard III betrayed, defeated and killed at the Battle of Bosworth.


September

September 14th 1400: English army commanded by Henry (Hotspur) Percy beats the Scots at the Battle of Homildon Hill.

September 21st 1411: Birth of Richard, Duke of York and death of his mother Anne Mortimer.

September 22nd 1415: Harfleur surrenders to Henry V after a five week siege.

September 14th 1435: Death of John, Duke of Bedford, third son of Henry IV, Regent for Henry VI in France.

September 23rd 1459: An army led by Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, defeats a Lancastrian force under Lord Audley at the Battle of Blore Heath.

September 13th 1470: The Earl of Warwick lands at Dartmouth on return from exile to attempt to restore Henry VI as King.

September 8th 1483: Richard III creates his son Edward, Prince of Wales in York.


October

October 25th 1415: A heavily outnumbered English army commanded by Henry V beats the French.

October 21st 1425: Ralph Neviile, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, dies at Raby Castle.

October 21st 1449: George, later Duke of Clarence, son of Richard, Duke of York, born.

October 2nd 1452: Richard, later Duke of Gloucester, Richard III, son of Richard Duke of York, born.

October 17th 1452: The Earl of Shrewsbury dies at the Battle of Castillon, the last battle of the Hundred Years War.

October 13th 1453: Edward of Lancaster, son of Henry VI born.

October 12th 1459: Richard, Duke of York forced into exile after Ludford Bridge.

October 25th 1460: The act of Accord passed making Richard Duke of York heir to the throne.

October 11th 1464: Edward IV presents Elizabeth Woodville to the Council of Reading as his Queen.

October 21st 1469: Edward IV appoints his brother Richard of Gloucester, Constable of England.

October 2nd 1470: Edward IV and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, sail into exile in Burgundy.


November

November 22nd 1428: Birth of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, called the Kingmaker.

November 11th 1461: Richard, youngest brother of Edward IV created Duke of Gloucester.

November 2nd 1470: Birth of Edward of York, eldest son of Edward IV, later uncrowned King Edward V.

November 2nd 1475: Anne fifth daughter of EdwrdIV born.

November 2nd 1483: Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, executed for treason at Salisbury.

November 27th 1487: Elizabeth of York crowned Queen Consort in Westminster Abbey.


December

December 2nd 1421: Henry VI born at Windsor Castle.

December 16th 1431: Henry VI crowned King of France.

December 30th 1460: Death of Richard, Duke of York at the Battle of Wakefield, and killing of his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, by, John Lord Clifford

December 31st 1461: Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, is beheaded by a mob at Pontefract.

December 13th 1470: Edward of Lancaster marries Anne Neville, as a seal on the collaboration between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou.